Implantology

Implantology

Dental implants

Unfilled tooth deficiencies may cause pain, difficulties with food digestion, as well as a change in occlusion caused by tooth displacement. In addition, extensive dentition defects adversely affect facial features – they cause atrophy of gums and bones, as a result of which the facial skin loses its natural support and becomes flabby.

The best way to get rid of such problems is to fill in the missing teeth. This can be done with conventional prosthetic restorations or by means of implant treatment. However, it is worth noting that titanium implants are a much better solution than prosthetic bridges or fixed and removable dentures.

Stable, functional and durable

Implants are an excellent alternative to lost teeth: they replace the root of a tooth as they are permanently placed in the jawbone or mandible.

Unlike removable dentures, they are also more stable, improving oral hygiene, making eating easier and providing better pronunciation. In addition, when they are implanted, there is no need to grind adjacent teeth.

How is a dental implant constructed?

Dental implants are most often made of titanium, a material with high biocompatibility on the one hand and durable and corrosion-resistant on the other. They resemble a small screw with a shape more or less similar to that of a tooth root. Currently, one-piece and two-piece implants are used in implantology.

One-piece implant – consists of a screw, which after being inserted into the jawbone protrudes above the gingival line. Directly on the protruding part the dentist places a crown or other prosthetic restoration.

A two-part implant, on the other hand, consists of an intracorporeal part (the so-called specific implant), which is screwed to the screw of the abutment (also called a support) and attached to the crown abutment.

Stable, functional and durable

Implants are an excellent alternative to lost teeth: they replace the root of a tooth as they are permanently placed in the jawbone or mandible.

Unlike removable dentures, they are also more stable, improving oral hygiene, making eating easier and providing better pronunciation. In addition, when they are implanted, there is no need to grind adjacent teeth.

How is the treatment going?

Usually, implant treatment consists of two stages. First, the dentist places a titanium implant in the bone, and after the end of the healing period, fixes the tooth crown on the implants.

The treatment is carried out by an implantologist or accompanied by a surgeon. The dentist is responsible for preparing the prosthetic restoration.

Treatments of this type are performed under local anaesthesia. Each of them is preceded by a preparatory visit, collection of an interview with the patient and analysis of CBCT examination.

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What is the osseointegration process?

After the implantation into the bone, osteointegration occurs. It consists in a permanent – biological and mechanical – connection of the titanium implant with the bone. As our body treats titanium as a specific tissue, the bone grows directly on the implant. This process usually lasts from 3 to 8 months and allows for full stabilization of the implant. There are certain clinical conditions for proper osteointegration. First of all, the dentist must perform the procedure in the least traumatic way possible. Secondly, the implant must be placed in the bone in a precisely defined place – one that will provide it with primary stability. Thirdly, during the so-called “grooming” period, the artificial root should not be subject to functional loads.

Recently, however, implantologists have been increasingly inclined to conclude that a rapid loading of the implant has certain advantages, as it stimulates a faster bone healing process.

The surface of the implant is covered by atomized titanium plasma or hydroxyapatite – a porous bioceramic substance that stimulates the growth of living bone tissue, so that the implant is closely connected to the mandible or jaw bone.

The disappearance of the jaw bone occurs most often in case of tooth loss. The alveolar bone, deprived of stimulation, gradually becomes thinner and the bottom of the sinus is spontaneously reduced. With time, the thickness of the bone becomes too thin for even the shortest implants to be inserted into it (their ends would be in the light of the maxillary sinus, which could lead to chronic inflammation and make it necessary to remove the implants). The solution in such a situation is to lift the sinus floor, combined with controlled bone regeneration.

An implant allows for permanent restoration of tooth cavities and avoids problems that occur with traditional dentures (tooth grinding, denture removal, etc.).

The implant not only provides an aesthetic appearance, not only restores freedom of speech and a beautiful smile, but also recreates the physiological functionality of natural dentition. It enables the transmission of chewing force to the jawbone and thus inhibits the process of resorption (resorption is in other words the slow absorption of bone mineral components, leading to its disappearance over time). In addition, dental implants are stable and comfortable, do not need to be replaced from time to time and – while observing the rules of oral hygiene – serve the patient for life.

It happens that the dentist will definitely stop the implantation procedure after the patient is found to be heavily dependent on tobacco. The reason for such a decision is simple – nicotine contained in cigarettes significantly impairs microcirculation and, as a result, causes worse blood supply to the bones, which may inhibit the implant’s osteointegration process. At the same time, nicotine impairs tissue regeneration, which in the case of implants may significantly extend the healing stage or cause various complications (e.g. inflammation in the oral cavity).

It is worth it. Contemporary implantology can also help patients with complete toothlessness. The best solution in this case is a fixed prosthetic bridge supported by an appropriate number of implants. Thanks to the implants, the dentist can reconstruct a full dental arch, perfectly imitating natural dentition.

Contraindications for implant placement

Absolute contraindications for tooth implantation

These are factors that do not allow for the procedure. They include serious systemic diseases such as: haematological disorders, severe, unstable diabetes, AIDS, cancer, hypertension, osteoporosis, severe mental illnesses.

Many dentists also resign from implantation if the patient is diagnosed with allergies, rheumatological diseases, as well as severe kidney and liver diseases.

However, it is not only systemic diseases that exclude the possibility of implantological treatment. Sometimes the factor that disqualifies the patient is also poor oral hygiene (combined with a lack of hygiene habits, in the opinion of a doctor who does not promise any improvement).

Relative contraindications for tooth implantation

Relative contraindications include all those factors which, although they pose a high risk of complications, do not exclude the possibility of the procedure. In the case of relative contraindications, the decision is made each time by the doctor, who assesses the individual case individually. Relative contraindications include:

  • atrophy of the jawbone (necessary earlier bone reconstruction)
  • pregnancy,
  • stabilizable diabetes,
  • gum and periodontal disease, bite disorders,
  • bone atrophy of the jaws and chaps,
  • patient’s age (under 16).